The Last known Location of The Tribe of Judah. The truth

This is the truth of the last known location of the Kingdom of Judah the complete history that is untold to the masses

kingdom of jews


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Roi de Juida, after Jacques Grasset de Saint-Sauveur (1757-1810).
Crowning of the King of Whydah, by Jacob van der Schley (1715-1779)

king haffon

Haffon (1695-1727) was the last ruler of the Kingdom of Whydah before it was captured by the forces of Dahomey in 1727.

king haffon juda

Born in 1695, Haffon became King of Whydah in 1708. He was not crowned in a formal ceremony at Savi until April 1725. His coronation party included 40 of his favorite wives. The 1725 date is that given by Chevalier des Marchais but some modern scholars argue it happened in 1717-1718.

Kingdom of Whydah
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Crowning of the King of Whydah, by Jacob van der Schley (1715-1779)
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The Kingdom of Whydah /ˈhwɪdə/ was a kingdom on the coast of West Africa in the boundaries of the modern nation of Benin. Between 1677 and 1681 it was conquered by the Akwamu, one of the Akan people.[1] It was a major slave trading post. In 1700, it had a coastline of around 10 miles (16 km);[2] under King Haffon, this was expanded to 40 miles (64 km), and stretching 25 miles (40 km) inland.[3]


The Kingdom of Whydah was cented in Savi. The last ruler of Whydah was King Haffon, who was deposed in 1727, when Whydah was conquered (and annexed) by the Kingdom of Dahomey.


1 Name
2 Life inside Whydah
3 European Presence
4 Takeover by the Dahomey
5 References
6 External links


The name Whydah (also spelt Hueda, Whidah or Whidaw) is an anglicised form of Xwéda (pronounced o-wi-dah), from the Yoruba language of Benin. When the Portuguese first settled the southern coast of West Africa, they spelled the name Ajudá. Today the port city of Ouidah, in the far west of the former Popo Kingdom where most of the European slave traders lived and worked, bears the kingdom’s name.


The area gives its name to the native whydah bird, and to pirate captain “Black Sam” Bellamy’s Whydah Gally, a slave ship turned pirate ship, whose wreck has been explored in Massachusetts.
Life inside Whydah

According to one European account visiting in 1692–1700, Whydah exported some thousand slaves a month, mainly from the interior of Africa. For this reason, it has been considered a “principal market” for human beings. When the king could not supply the European traders with sufficient slaves, he would supplement them with his own wives. Robbery was common. Every thing in Whydah paid a toll to the king, but corruption amongst collectors was endemic. Despite this, the king was wealthy, and clothed in gold and silver—goods of which little was known in Whydah. He commanded great respect, and, unusually, was never seen to eat. The color red was reserved for the royal family. The king was considered immortal, despite successive kings dying of natural causes. Interregna, even of only a few days, were met by plundering and anarchy. Wives were isolated and protected by their husbands; fathers with more than two hundred children had been recorded. Three public objects were the subject of devotion: some lofty trees, the sea, and a type of snake. This snake was the subject of many stories and incidents; worshipped perhaps because it ate the rats who would otherwise ruin the harvest. Priests and priestesses were held in high regard, and immune from capital punishment. The king could field 200,000 men, but these were “so weak and cowardly” that they could easily be defeated.[2] In comparison, other estimates range upward from twenty thousand, although contemporary interpretation is generally that these armies were of “overwhelming size”. Battles were normally won by strength of numbers alone, with the weaker side fleeing.[4]
European Presence

With King Haffon’s rise to power in 1708, European trade companies had established a significant presence in Whydah and were in constant competition to win to King’s favor. The French Company of the Indies presented Haffon with two ships worth of cargo and an extravagant Louis XIV-style throne while the British Royal African Company gifted a crown for the newly appointed King. Such practices illustrate the high level of dependence European traders had on native African powers in the beginning of the 18th century and also the close relationship that emerged between the two entities. This association is further reiterated by the fact that Dutch, British, French, and Portuguese trading company compounds all bordered the walls of Haffon’s royal palace in the city of Savi. These compounds served as important centers of diplomatic and commercial exchange between European companies and the Kingdom of Whydah.

black whydah

While company compounds facilitated the interaction between European traders and native Africans, the true center of European operations in Whydah were the various forts that existed along the coast near the town of Glewe. Owned by the Portuguese Crown, the French Company of the Indies, and the British Royal African Company, the forts were mainly used to store slaves and trading merchandise. Made up of mud walls, the forts provided tolerable protection for the Europeans but were not strong enough to withstand a legitimate attack from the natives. Furthermore, because the forts were located more than three miles inland, cannons could not effectively protect European ships in the harbor and anchored ships could not come to the aid of the forts in times of need. In this sense, while the forts showcased some degree of European influence, the reality was that the Europeans relied heavily on the king for protection and local natives for sustenance and firewood. This relationship would take a drastic turn with the decline of royal authority and increase of internal power struggles throughout the 18th and 19th centuries that gave way to French colonization of the region in 1872. [5]
Takeover by the Dahomey

In 1727, Whydah was conquered by King Agaja of the Kingdom of Dahomey. This incorporation of Whydah into Dahomey transformed the latter into a significant regional power. However, constant warfare with the Oyo Empire from 1728 to 1740 resulted in Dahomey becoming a tributary state of the Oyo.

king dahomy

Almanac of African peoples & nations. By Muḥammad Zuhdī Yakan.
Catherine Hutton (1821). “Whydah”. The tour of Africa: Containing a concise account of all the countries in that quarter of the globe, hitherto visited by Europeans; with the manners and customs of the inhabitants 2. Baldwin, Cradock and Joy. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
Robert Harms. “The ‘Diligent’: A Voyage through the Worlds of the Slave Trade”. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
Edna G. Bay (1998). Wives of the leopard: gender, politics, and culture in the Kingdom of Dahomey. University of Virginia Press. ISBN 978-0-8139-1792-4. Retrieved 7 February 2010.

Harms, Robert. The Diligent: A Voyage Through the Worlds of the Slave Trade. Basic Books: New York, 2002.

Harms, Robert. The Diligent: A Voyage Through the Worlds of the Slave Trade. Basic Books: New York, 2002.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Whydah, Juda, Juida, Ajudá
Commune and city
Basilica of Ouidah
Basilica of Ouidah
Ouidah is located in Benin
Location in Benin
Coordinates: 6°22′N 2°05′E
Country Benin
Department Atlantique Department
• Total 364 km2 (141 sq mi)
Elevation 65 m (213 ft)
Population (2012)[1]
• Total 91,688
• Density 250/km2 (650/sq mi)
Time zone WAT (UTC+1)

Ouidah /ˈwiːdə/, historically also called Whydah /ˈhwaɪdə/, Juda,[2] Juida by the French[3] and Ajudá by the Portuguese,[4] formally the Kingdom of Whydah (so named for the Whydah Bird of Paradise), is a city on the coast of the Republic of Benin. The commune covers an area of 364 km2 (141 sq mi) and as of 2002 had a population of 76,555 people.[5]


1 History
2 Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá
3 Notable landmarks
4 World Heritage Status
5 Notable people
6 See also
7 References
8 External links


In local tradition Kpase is supposed to have founded the town.[6] This probably happened towards the end of the sixteenth century.[7] The town was originally known as Glēxwé, literally ‘Farmhouse’, and was part of the Kingdom of Whydah.

negroland tribe of juda

Whydah troops pushed their way into the African interior, capturing millions of people through tribal wars, and selling them to the Europeans and Arabs.[8] By 1716, when the massive English slave ship Whydah Gally arrived to purchase 500 slaves from King Haffon to sell in Jamaica, the Kingdom of Whydah had become the second largest slave port in the Triangular trade.

The Kingdom was ruled by King Haffon, who received his coronation crown as a gift from Portugal, until, in 1727, the Kingdom of Whydah was captured by the forces of King Agaja of Dahomey. On 19 March 1727, the Boston News-Letter gave this horrific report:

king haffon

“WHYDAH IN AFRICA: the beginning of this month, Agaja the king of Dahomey came down unexpectedly with an army, and soon became master of this place, and the country adjacent [Allada]; the defoliation which ensued was so great, that it is impossible to be represented! The factory at Saber, once the king’s town and Seat of Trade, was burnt to the ground, and in it a great quantity of merchandise. Forty Europeans were carried into captivity, to the King of Dahomey’s camp at Ardrah, but after having been detained about 14 days, seven of them were released and are now returning hither; they gave a melancholy account of their treatment. This country, which was the pleasantest in all these parts, is now laid waste by fire and sword, and made a wilderness!”

The land which constituted the Kingdom of Whydah became a mere city in the new Kingdom of Dahomey. The Portuguese, English, Dutch and French all constructed forts in the city to protect their interests in slaving. The Portuguese had reached the town which they called Ajudá in 1580 and the Portuguese Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá, now housing The Whydah [Ouidah] Museum, dates from 1721 and remained with Portugal until 31 July 1961.
Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá
The fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá, late 19th century

The Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá (in English Fort of St. John the Baptist of Ouidah) is a small fortress built by the Portuguese in Ouidah on the coast of Dahomey (originally Ajudá, from Hweda, on the Atlantic coast of modern Benin), reached by the Portuguese in 1580, after which it grew around the slave trade, for which the Slave Coast was already renowned. In 1680 the Portuguese governor of São Tomé and Príncipe was authorized to erect a fort. In 1721, after having been abandoned for some years, it was reconstructed and named São João Baptista de Ajudá.The Fort, built on land given to Portugal by King Haffon of Whydah, remained under Portuguese control from 1721 until 1961.
The Historical Museum of Ouidah
Pirate Bartholomew Roberts at Ouidah, with his ship and captured merchantmen in the background


The fort had an important impact in Benin, greatly contributing to both the Portuguese and African slave trade. Its importance is attested by the fact that the Portuguese language was the only foreign language that the Kings of Dahomey authorised. Portuguese descendants were also important in the political structure of the kingdom and some established Portuguese-Brazilian families, such as the de Sousa / de Souza whose descendants still exist in Benin, Togo and Ghana, were powerful and abided by private law. In January 1722 the pirate Bartholomew Roberts (“Black Bart”) sailed into the harbour and captured all the eleven ships at anchor there.

Following the abolition of the legal slave trade in 1807, the fort, which had before been one of the major slave ports, gradually lost its importance and although Portugal continued to claim it as one of its possessions, formal occupation and administration were abandoned on several occasions. It was only when French presence in the region started threatening Portugal’s interests that the settlement was again permanently manned. This didn’t prevent the French conquest of Dahomey (1891–1894). After this, São João Baptista de Ajudá – now reduced to the territory actually within the walls of the fort – lost what remained of its importance.
Football in Ouidah


The fort was reoccupied by Portugal in 1865. In this period it served as a base for a brief Portuguese attempt to create a protectorate in the Kingdom of Dahomey of which the city of Hweda (Ajudá – Ouidah) was part (1885–1887).

Until its annexation by Dahomey in 1961, São João Baptista de Ajudá was probably the smallest recognized separate modern political unit, initially around 1 km2 (0.4 sq mi) and later reduced to only 2ha (5 acres), at which time, according to the census of 1921, it had 5 inhabitants and, at the moment of the ultimatum by the Dahomey Government, it had only 2 inhabitants representing Portuguese sovereignty, who tried to burn it rather than surrendering it. When the fort was captured, they were hastily escorted to the Nigerian border and expelled from the country.

Only in 1975, after the Portuguese Estado Novo regime had been overthrown due to the Carnation Revolution at Lisbon, did the annexation of the fort by Dahomey (now renamed Benin) gain official Portuguese recognition. This was followed by the fort’s restoration, which was paid for by Portugal. The fort is a small square with towers at the four corners. It comprises a church and officers’ quarters. The Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá now houses a museum.

Bruce Chatwin’s book The Viceroy of Ouidah (1980) is a fictional retelling of the life of Francisco Félix de Sousa, the Sousa family founder in Benin, and of his powerful local descendants, dealing also with the slave trade with Brazil. The novel inspired Werner Herzog’s movie Cobra Verde (1987).

The population evolution of Ouidah is as follows:
Year Population[9]
1979 25 459
1992 64 433
2002 77 832
2008 (estimate) 90 042
Notable landmarks
Door of No Return

voodun religion

Other attractions in Ouidah include a restored mansion of Brazilian slavers the Maison du Brésil art gallery, a voodoo python temple, an early twentieth century basilica and the Sacred Forest of Kpasse, dotted with bronze statues.

The Route des Esclaves, by which slaves were taken to the beach, has numerous statues and monuments, including the Door of No Return, a memorial arch.

The Market Center of Ouidah, which was established by Scouts more than 20 years ago, trains young people in agricultural skills, thus helping to reverse the exodus towards the cities.

Ouidah is the spiritual capital of the Vodun religion, and hosts an annual international Vodun conference.[10]

Other landmarks include:

Ouidah Cathedral
Basilique de l’Immaculée Conception
Ouidah Museum of History

World Heritage Status

This site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on 31 October 1996 in the Cultural category.[11]
Notable people

Oscar Olou (b.1987), footballer
See also

Heads of State of Benin
Heads of Government of Benin
Whydah Gally

benin slave trade


“World Gazetteer”.
Kein, Sybil, Creole, p227
Tome Vingt-Cinquieme, contenant La Suite de l’Histoire d’Afrique, p. 313, at Google Books textos/article/viewArticle/5714
“Communes of Benin”. Statoids. Archived from the original on 2012-04-30. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
Robin Law, Ouidah: The Social History of a West African Slaving ‘Port’, 2004, p.21
Robin Law, Ouidah: The Social History of a West African Slaving ‘Port’, 2004, p.24-25
Ouidah Museum, Benin – “Depart pour D’Autres ‘Ceux’, Convoi De negres: homes, femmes et enfants, conduits enchaines par des metis Arabes”
“Benin”. World Gazetteer. Retrieved 19 December 2008.
“The Voodoo Day: Benin welcomes magicians from all over the world”. 1 November 2004. Retrieved 29 August 2008.

La ville d’Ouidah : quartiers anciens et Route de l’Esclave – UNESCO World Heritage Centre

WorldStatesmen- Benin not quite worked in yet
La ville d’Ouidah : quartiers anciens et Route de l’Esclave – UNESCO World Heritage Centre
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Savi (disambiguation).
Crowning of the King of Whydah in Savi, April 1725, by Jacob van der Schley (1715-1779)

Savi (Also Xavier) was the capital of the Kingdom of Whydah prior to its capture by the forces of Dahomey in 1727.

whydah the kingdom

An account of the city was given by Robert Norris in 1789

“Sabee, at that period the metropolis of the kingdom, the residence of their monarch, and seat of their commerce, was about four miles in circumference. The houses, constructed with mud walls, were roofed with thatch. The factory houses of the European traders were spacious and airy, distributed into convenient apartments, and surrounded on the outside with a large gallery opening into balconies. The town swarmed with people, insomuch, that it was impossible to pass through the streets without great difficulty. Markets were held every day, at which were exposed to sale all sorts of merchandizes, European and African, besides abundance of provisions of every kind … the plains embellished with an astonishing multitude of large and small villages, every one of which was enclosed with a low mud wall, and placed in full view of the surrounding district; all this assemblage united to form the most picturesque view imaginable, unobstructed either by mountain or hill.”[1]

dutch east india company

There were British East India Company, Dutch West India Company, French East India Company and a Portuguese trading compound in the city, adjacent to the Royal Palace.

Overall the city was very populous and filled with throngs of people.

Monroe, Cameron. “Urbanism on West Africa’s Slave Coast”. American Scientist. Retrieved 24 September 2014.

Norris, Robert (1789), Memoirs of the reign of Bossa Ahádee London: Printed for W. Lowndes.
Ross, David. “Robert Norris, Agaja, and the Dahomean Conquest of Allada and Whydah” in History in Africa, 16 (1989), 311-324.
Harms, Robert. The Diligent: A Journey through the Worlds of the Slave Trade. New York: Basic Books, 2002. p. 155-156.



a) As early as 63 BC, under Pompey’s campaign, many of the dispersed Hebrews were enslaved in Romeb) In 70 AD, began the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem at the hands of Titus, a Roman General; under the reign of Titus Vespasian, there was a four year onslaught against Hebrew Israel and many were either killed or sold into slavery

c) The last Hebrew revolt (the Bar-Kokhba rebellion) against Rome, occurred in 135 AD

d) After 135 AD, the entire Hebrew Nationhood was dispersed / scattered

e) A multitude of Hebrews fled Rome for fear of persecution, through either death or enslavement
The Great Transmigration Of Hebrew Israel

seige of jer

The Hebrews migrated into Arabia immediately after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by the Roman General Titus, in 70 AD. During this period the Hebrews referred to themselves as Yemenite Hebrews. It is said that the Yemenite Hebrews came out of the line of Solomon & Queen of Sheba and their son Menelik. Also, they are closely related to the Ethiopians of Abyssinia. The Arabs were one of the first Peoples to identify the great land mass of Cush/Africa, as ‘Bilad es Sudan’.Cyprus: Had a very large population of Hebrews, many of them were disciples of the Nazarene doctrine and some held trades as copper smiths, during the period of 135 AD.By the second century, great masses of Hebrews had migrated into Alexandria, Egypt and all across the Northern Coast of Africa, including: Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, and Mauretania. During the 5th and 6th centuries they fled from the Byzantine (Roman) occupied countries, into the region of the Sahara Desert and the Sudan. Many of the Hebrews played a significant role in cultivating the great Sahara Desert.Across Africa and into Spain; in the middle of the 7th century the Arabs were on the move and launched an attack against Egypt and won, they continued to move across Africa and into Spain. Iberia/Spain & Portugal had been under the rule of the Moors for well over 500 years.

black jews persecution portugal

As early as the 6th century there was a great population of Hebrews, many of them were devout men who dominated most of the learning centers (religious and secular) throughout Spain. They were once again persecuted for the practice of their faith and many were forced to convert to Islam or flee. It wasn’t until the great inquisitions of Spain in 1492 and Portugal in 1496 that Hebrew Israel migrated in great numbers to the Mediterranean coasts and Northern and Western Africa. Those that did not flee were sold into slavery.

arab slave trade deaths

Many Hebrews migrated to Asia Minor/Turkey, as a means of escaping the persecution of Spain and Portugal, during the period of 1547 AD.Finally, the vast majority of Hebrews migrated into Western Africa/Sudan, along the Western Coast of Africa and sojourned there for over fifteen hundred years (70 AD – 1619 AD). The Hebrews became a dominant factor in establishing many of the cultures throughout Western Africa, including the following countries:

In Ghana, the Hebrews were identified as the Ashantee

ashanti jews

In Mali, the indigenous people were identifed as the Mandinka, however, they were not Hebrews

In Songhay, the city of Timbuktu, which was a great center of education and commerce and many of the indigenous people were Hebrews
Guinea, which was Known as the Gold Coast, also had a significant numbers of Hebrews

The West African Slave Trade

transatlantic slave trade

During middle of the 15th century, Europe had entered into the slave trade. This was the period of the decline of the great Sudanese Empires, which was brought on by the struggle with Arab invaders and tribal wars. The introduction of gun powder by the Europeans, exasperated the declension of so many of the warring factions. Now, human life and gold were traded for gun powder and arms.

Under King Charles V and the Catholic Papacy, the treasured and highly prized ‘Papal Bull Asiento’ (a license to enslave Africans) was first issued to the Portuguese.

As early as 1441, Prince Henry the Navigator had entered Africa and by 1481 Portugal had established the first European outpost (Fort Elmina), in Ghana, near the city of Benin. During this period the Portuguese coined the phrase ‘Negro’ (meaning black).

In the early 17th century (1619) the first twenty Africans arrived in Virginia, as slave laborers for the harvesting of tobacco. And the rest is history.
Jews of Bilad el-Sudan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Songhai Empire, c. 1500

song empire forged

Jews of the Bilad al-Sudan (אַהַל יַהוּדּ בִּלַדּ אַל סוּדָּן, Judeo-Arabic) describes West African Jewish communities who were connected to known Jewish communities from the Middle East, North Africa, or Spain and Portugal. Various historical records attest to their presence at one time in the Ghana, Mali, and Songhai empires, then called the Bilad as-Sudan from the Arabic meaning Land of the Blacks. Jews from Spain, Portugal, and Morocco in later years also formed communities off the coast of Senegal and on the Islands of Cape Verde. These communities continued to exist for hundreds of years but have since disappeared due to changing social conditions, migration, and the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade.

1 Early history
1.1 Trade and establishment of communities
1.2 Islamic era
2 Jews of the Sahara
2.1 Daggatun connection
3 Rabbi Mordechai Aby Serour and the last Timbuktu community
4 Cape Verde
5 Emergence of Arabic records in Timbuktu
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
8.1 General
8.2 Mali and Songhay
8.3 Cape Verde and Guinea Coast
9 External links
9.1 Timbuktu
9.2 Northern Africa
9.3 Cape Verde

Early history

egypt tun

According to most accounts, the earliest Jewish settlements in Africa were in places such as Egypt, Tunisia,and Morocco. Jews had settled along the Upper Nile at Elephantine in Egypt. These communities were augmented by subsequent arrivals of Jews after the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE, when 30,000 Jewish slaves were settled throughout Carthage by the Roman emperor Titus.

arabic records of timbuktu

Africa is identified in various Jewish sources in connection with Tarshish and Ophir.[1] The Septuagint,[2] and Jerome,[3] who was taught by Jews, and very often the Aramaic Targum on the Prophets, identify the Biblical Tarshish with Carthage, which was the birthplace of a number of rabbis mentioned in the Talmud. Africa, in the broader sense, is clearly indicated where mention is made of the Ten Tribes having been driven into exile by the Assyrians and having journeyed into Africa.[4] Connected with this is the idea that the river Sambation is in Africa. The Arabs, who also know the legend of the Beni Musa (“Sons of Moses”), agree with the Jews in placing their land in Africa.

Page from the Tarikh es-Sudan which describes Za/Zuwa Alyaman coming from Yemen and settling in Kukiya.

king dahomy

As early as Roman times, Moroccan Jews had begun to travel inland to trade with groups of Berbers, most of whom were nomads who dwelt in remote areas of the Atlas Mountains. Jews lived side by side with Berbers, forging both economic and cultural ties ;some Berbers even began to practice Judaism. In response, Berber spirituality transformed Jewish ritual, painting it with a belief in the power of demons and saints. When the Muslims swept across the North of Africa, Jews and Berbers defied them together. Across the Atlas Mountains, the legendary Queen Kahina led a tribe of 7th century Berbers, Jews, and other North African ethnic groups in battle against encroaching Islamic warriors.

In the 10th century, as the social and political environment in Baghdad became increasingly hostile to Jews, many Jewish traders there left for the Maghreb, Tunisia in particular. Over the following two to three centuries, a distinctive social group of traders throughout the Mediterranean world became known as the Maghrebi, passing on this identification from father to son.

According to certain local Malian legends a mention in the Tarikh al-Sudan may have recorded the first Jewish presence in West Africa with the arrival of the first Zuwa ruler of Koukiya and his brother, located near the Niger River. He was known only as Za/Zuwa Alayman (meaning “He comes from Yemen”). Some local legends state that Zuwa Alayman was a member of one of the Jewish communities that were either transported or voluntarily moved from Yemen by the Ethiopians in the 6th century C.E. after the defeat of Dhu Nuwas. The Tarikh al-Sudan, states that there were 14 Zuwa rulers of Kukiya after Zuwa Alyaman before the rise of Islam in the region.[5] There is though debate on whether or not the Tarikh es-Soudan can be understand in this manner.
Trade and establishment of communities

Pages from the Tarikh al-fattash, Manuscript C, which describe the Jews/Bani Israeel of Tirdirma.

Manuscript C of the Tarikh al-fattash describes a community called the Bani Israeel that in 1402 CE existed in Tirdirma, possessed 333 wells, and had seven leaders:

Jabroot bin-Hashim
Thoelyaman bin-Abdel Hakim
Zeor bin-Salam
Abdel-latif bin-Solayman
Malik bin-Ayoob
Fadil bin-Mzar
Shaleb bin-Yousef

robert norris slave trade

It is also stated that they had an army of 1500 men.[6] Other sources say that other Jewish communities in the region were formed by migrations from Morocco, Egypt, and Portugal. When the Scottish explorer Mungo Park traveled through West Africa in the late 18th century he was informed by an Arab he met near Walata of there being many Arabic speaking Jews in Timbuktu whose prayers were similar to the Moors.[7] Some communities are said to have been populated by certain Berber Jews like a group of Kal Tamasheq known as Iddao Ishaak that traveled from North Africa into West Africa for trade, as well as those escaping the Islamic invasions into North Africa.[8]
Islamic era

In the 14th century many Moors and Jews, fleeing persecution in Spain, migrated south to the Timbuktu area, at that time part of the Songhai Empire. Among them was the Kehath (Ka’ti) family, descended from Ismael Jan Kot Al-yahudi of Scheida, Morocco. Sons of this prominent family founded three villages that still exist near Timbuktu — Kirshamba, Haybomo, and Kongougara. In 1492, Askia Mohammad I came to power in the previously tolerant region of Timbuktu and decreed that Jews must convert to Islam or leave; Judaism became illegal in Mali, as it did in Catholic Spain that same year. This was based on the advice of Muhammad al-Maghili.

As the historian Leo Africanus wrote in 1526:

“In Garura there were some very rich Jews. The intervention of the preacher (Muhammid al-Maghili) of Tlemcen set up the pillage of their goods, and most of them have been killed by the population. This event took place during the same year when the Jews had been expelled from Spain and Sicily by the Catholic King.”

Leo Africanus further wrote:

leo africanus

“The king (Askia) is a declared enemy of the Jews. He will not allow any to live in the city. If he hears it said that a Berber merchant frequents them or does business with them, he confiscates his goods.”

Jews of the Sahara
Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Daggatun and Berber Jews

There seems to be little doubt that Jewish have largely been mixed with Berbers living in the Moroccan and Algerian Sahara. It is believed that some Berber clans may have been at one time Jews and according to another tradition they are descended from the Philistines driven out of Canaan.[9] There is a tradition that Moses was buried in Tlemçen, and the presence of a large number of Jews in that part of Africa is attested to, not only by the many sacred places and shrines bearing Biblical names which are holy to Muslims as well as to Jews, but also by the presence there of a large number of Jewish sagas.[9] L. Rinn says: “Certain Berber tribes were for a long time of the Jewish religion, especially in Amès; and to-day, even, we see among the Hanensha of Sukahras (Algeria) a semi-nomad tribe of Israelites devoted entirely to agriculture”.[10]

In addition, it may be noticed that Jews are to be found in the Berber “ksurs” (fortified villages) all along southern Morocco and in the adjacent Sahara. Thus, at Outat near Tafilalt there is a mellah with about 500 Jews;[11] and at Figuig, a mellah with 100 Jews.[11] Going farther south to Tuat, there is a large community of Jews in the oasis of Alhamada; and at Tamentit, a two weeks’ journey from Tafilalt, the 6,000 or 8,000 inhabitants are said to be descendants of Jews converted to Islam.[11] Even much farther to the west, in the province of Sus, there is Ogulmin with 3,000 inhabitants, of whom 100 are said to be Jews.
Daggatun connection

Caravan approaching Timbuktu in 1853 (from Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa by Prof. Dr. Heinrich Barth, vol. iv, London 1858)

heinrich barth

The Daggatuns were a nomadic tribe of Jewish origin living in the neighborhood of Tamentit, in the oasis of Tuat in the Moroccan Sahara. An account of the Daggatun was first given by Rabbi Mordechai Abi Serour of Akka (Morocco), who in 1857 journeyed through the Sahara to Timbuctu, and whose account of his travels was published in the “Bulletin de la Société de Géographie”.[12] According to Rabbi Sarur, the Daggatun lived in tents and resembled the Berber Kel Tamesheq (Tuareg), among whom they live, in language, religion, and general customs. They are subject to the Tuaregs, who do not intermarry with them. Rabbi Sarur also states that their settlement in the Sahara dates from the end of the 7th century (Muslim chronology) when ‘Abd al-Malik ascended the throne and conquered as far as Morocco. At Tamentit he tried to convert the inhabitants to Islam; and as the Jews offered great resistance he exiled them to the desert of Ajaj, as he did also the Tuaregs, who had only partially accepted Islam. Cut off from any connection with their brethren, these Jews in the Sahara gradually lost their Jewish practises and became nominally Muslims.

Other accounts place a group of “Arabs” driven to Ajaj as being identified with the Mechagra mentioned by Erwin von Bary,[13] among whom a few Jews are said still to dwell there. Victor J. Horowitz[14] also speaks of many free tribes in the desert regions who are Jews by origin, but who have gradually thrown off Jewish customs and have apparently accepted Islam. Among these tribes, he says, are the Daggatun, numbering several thousands and scattered over several oases in the Sahara, even as far as the River Dialiva (Djoliba?) or Niger. He says, also, that they are very warlike and in constant conflict with the Tuareg. According to Horowitz, the Mechagra mentioned above are also to be reckoned as one of these Jewish tribes. Horowitz had never been to Africa, but relied mainly on rumours spread in the European Jewish community.
Rabbi Mordechai Aby Serour and the last Timbuktu community

Rabbi Mordechai Aby Serour circa 1870s – 1880s. Last Rabbi of Timbuktu.

rabbi mordic

Former Timbuktu house and synagogue of Rabbi Mordechai Aby Serour used circa 1870’s – 1880’s.

Rabbi Mordechai Abi Serour, with his brother Yitzhaq, came from Morocco in 1859 to be a trader in Timbuktu. At the time of Rabbi Serour’s bold enterprise, direct trade relations with the interior of west Africa (then known to them as Sudan) were monopolized by Muslim merchants. Non-Muslims were precluded from this trade because Arab merchants were determined to forestall encroachments upon their lucrative business.[15]

As a man of cosmopolitan experience, he was well suited to be a merchant in that time and place. He was clever, shrewd, articulate, audacious, and most important he knew Koranic law as well as most learned Muslims.[16] Throughout his travels to Timbuktu Rabbi Serour preferred to have most of his merchandise transported across the Sahara by bejaoui. The term, bejaoui, refers to single or small groups of camels that carried travelers sometimes without merchandise or baggage, and were accompanied by indigenous guides.[17]

As a Jew, he couldn’t set up his trading business, so he appealed to the regional ruler, who at that time was a Fulani Emir, and negotiated dhimmi, or protected people status. Between 1860 to 1862 Rabbi Serour and his brother Yitzhaq were able to become successful and they became well known in the area. After earning a small fortune, Rabbi Serour returned to Morocco in 1863.[18] He gave his father a large sum of money and talked his other brothers into joining him on his next venture to Timbuktu. In 1864, the Jewish colony in Timbuktu had reason to rejoice since by the end of the year they had eleven adult male Jews in residence. This was significant since it meant that they could form a minyan and establish a synagogue. They were:[19][20]

Rabbi Mordechai Aby Serour
Mordechai’s brothers Esau, Avraham, and Yitzhaq
Esau’s sons Aharon and David
Aharon’s son Yitzhaq
Moussa (Mordechai’s brother in law)
Moussa’s son David
Rabbi Raphael
Shimon Ben-Yaaqov

Cape Verde
Main article: History of the Jews in Cape Verde
See also: History of Cape Verde

cape verde

Manuel I in 1496, decided to exile thousands of Jews to São Tomé, Príncipe, and Cape Verde. The numbers expelled at this time were so great that the term “Portuguese” almost implied those of Jewish origin. Those who were not expelled were converted by force or executed. During the early 19th century, Jews also came to settle in Santo Antão where there are still traces of their influx in the name of the village of Sinagoga, located on the north coast between Riberia Grande and Janela, and in the Jewish cemetery at the town of Ponta da Sol. A final chapter of Jewish history in Cape Verde took place in the 1850s when Moroccan Jews arrived, especially in Boa Vista and Maio for the hide trade.[21]
Emergence of Arabic records in Timbuktu

Records of the Jewish history of Mali can still be found in the Kati Andalusi library. Ismael Diadie Haidara, a historian from Timbuktu, possesses old Arabic and Hebrew texts among the city’s historical records.[22] He has also researched his own past and discovered that he is descended from the Moroccan Jewish traders of the Abana family. As he interviewed elders in the villages of his relatives, he has discovered that knowledge of the family’s Jewish identity has been preserved, in secret, out of fear of persecution.

Recently there has come to light the personal library of the first Mahmoud Kati, which was handed down through his descendants and added to through at least the mid-17th century. This extraordinary “discovery” was made a by a young Malian historian, Ismaël Diadié Haïdara, a member of the Kati clan, and author of several books, including L’Espagne musulmane et l’Afrique subsaharienne (1997), and Les Juifs de Tombouctou (1999). The library is currently in the possession of two branches of the Kati clan in the village of Kirshamba about 100 miles to the west of Timbuktu. Up to 1,700 out of an estimated 2,000 manuscripts in the library have been examined and evaluated by Abdul Kader Haïdara, the Timbuktu-based expert in Arabic manuscripts and guardian of the Mamma Haidara Memorial Library currently being rehabilitated through a grant from the Mellon Foundation.[23]

The trading documents referred to three families in particular: the Kehath family (Ka’ti) that came from southern Morocco and converted with the rest of the population in 1492; the Cohen family descended from the Moroccan Jewish trader al-Hajj Abd al-Salam al Kuhin, who arrived in the Timbuktu area in the 18th century; and the Abana family, which came in the first half of the 19th century.[24]
See also

Sephardi Jews
Mizrahi Jews
History of the Jews in Algeria
History of the Jews in Tunisia
History of the Jews in Morocco
History of the Jews in Libya
Trans-Saharan trade
Jews and Judaism in Africa
House of Israel
Lemba people
Tribe of Judah


Tamid, 32b, and the parallel passage, where, “African land”, is evidently the same as Carthage
Isaiah 23:1
on Ezekiel 25:7
Mek., Bo, 17; Tosef., Shab. vii. 25; Deut. R. v. 14; and especially Sanh. 94a
Tarikh es-Soudan, Paris, 1900, by Abderrahman ben-Abdall es-Sadi (trad. O. Houdas) pages 5-10
Tarikh al-fattash, by Mahmoud Kati ben El-Hajj El Motaoukkal Kati, 1657, pages 62-63
Jews of a Saharan Oasis: Elimination of the Tamantit Community, Markus Wiener Publishers, Princeton, New Jersey, 2006, by John Hunwick. page 67
Primak, Karen. Jews in Places You Never Thought of. Ktav Publishing. ISBN 0-88125-608-0.
Basset, “Nedromah,”p. 13
“Origines Berbers”, p. 406 (see “Rev. Arch. de Constantine”, 1867, p. 102)
Horowitz, l.c. p. 202,204,205
Dec., 1895; see “Bulletin de l’Alliance Israèlite” vol. ii. 42, 1880; “La Grand Encyclopedie”, xxiii. 254; James Edward Budgett-Meakin, Land of the Moors, p.17
“Ghat et les Tuareg de l’Air”, p. 181
Marokko., Leipzig 1887, pp. 58 seq.
God’s Will The Travels of Rabbi Mordochai Abi Serour, by Dr. Sanford H. Bederman, GSU Department of Geography Research Series, 1980, page 9
Ibed. page 7
Ibed. page 10
Ibed. page 14
Ibed. page 15
Les Juifs à Tombouctou, or Jews of Timbuktu, Recueil de sources écrites relatives au commerce juif à Tombouctou au XIXe siècle, Editions Donniya, Bamako, 1999 by Professor Ismael Diadie Haidara, page 31
Jews in Cape Verde and on the Guinea Coast, Paper presented at the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth, February 11, 1996, by Richard Lobban
The Renewal of Jewish Identity in Timbuktu, by Karen Primack
The Kati Library, Saharan Studies Association
The Jews of Timbuktu, by Rick Gold, Washington Jewish Week, December 30, 1999

people of timbuktu

Further reading

Wars of the Jews: A Military History from Biblical to Modern Times, Hipporcrene Books, New York, 1990, by Monroe Rosenthal and Isaac Mozeson
Jewish Communities in Exotic Places, Jason Aronson Inc., Jerusalem, by Ken Blady
Jews In Africa: Ancient Black African Relations, Fact Paper 19-II, By Samuel Kurinsky
Hebrewisms of West Africa: From Nile to Niger With the Jews, The Dial Press, New York, 1931, by Joseph J. Williams
Jews of a Saharan Oasis: Elimination of the Tamantit Community, Markus Wiener Publishers, Princeton, New Jersey, 2006, by John Hunwick

Mali and Songhay

mali song

Jews in Africa: Part 1 The Berbers and the Jews, by Sam Timinsky (Hebrew History Federation)
The Jews of Timbuktu, Washington Jewish Week, December 30, 1999, by Rick Gold
Les Juifs à Tombouctou, or Jews of Timbuktu, Recueil de sources écrites relatives au commerce juif à Tombouctou au XIXe siècle, Editions Donniya, Bamako, 1999 by Professor Ismael Diadie Haidara

Cape Verde and Guinea Coast

Jews in Cape Verde and on the Guinea Coast, Paper presented at the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth, February 11, 1996, by Richard Lobban

External links

Resources>Jewish communities>Magreb The Jewish History Resource Center, Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem


Timbuktu: City of Legends, Joan Baxtor
Les manuscrits trouvés à Tombouctou, by Jean-Michel Djian

Northern Africa

Jews and Berbers, by Dr. Bruce Maddy-Weitzman

Cape Verde

loban book

Jews in Cape Verde and the Guinna Coast, by Dr. Richard Lobban
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Gomer (disambiguation).

Gomer (גֹּמֶר, Standard Hebrew Gómer, Tiberian Hebrew Gōmer, pronounced [ɡoˈmeʁ]) was the eldest son of Japheth (and of the Japhetic line), and father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah, according to the “Table of Nations” in the Hebrew Bible, (Genesis 10).

The eponymous Gomer, “standing for the whole family,” as the compilers of the Jewish Encyclopedia expressed it,[1] is also mentioned in Book of Ezekiel 38:6 as the ally of Gog, the chief of the land of Magog.

In Islamic folklore, the Persian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (c. 915) recounts a Persian tradition that Gomer lived to the age of 1000, noting that this record equalled that of Nimrod, but was unsurpassed by anyone else mentioned in the Torah.[2]


1 Traditional identifications
2 Gomer’s descendants
3 Notes
4 References


Traditional identifications

Josephus placed Gomer and the “Gomerites” in Anatolian Galatia: “For Gomer founded those whom the Greeks now call Galatians, but were then called Gomerites.”[3] Galatia in fact takes its name from the ancient Gauls (Celts) who settled there. However, the later Christian writer Hippolytus of Rome in c. 234 assigned Gomer as the ancestor of the Cappadocians, neighbours of the Galatians.[4] Jerome (c. 390) and Isidore of Seville (c. 600) followed Josephus’ identification of Gomer with the Galatians, Gauls and Celts.

Genesis 10:3 And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.

The Hebrew name Gomer is widely considered to refer to the Cimmerians (Akkadian Gimirru, “complete”), who dwelt on the Eurasian Steppes[5] and attacked Assyria in the late 7th century BC. The Assyrians called them Gimmerai ; the Cimmerian king Teushpa was defeated by Assarhadon of Assyria sometime between 681 and 668 BC.[6]

The Cimbri were a tribe settled in Denmark ca. 200 BC, who were variously identified in ancient times as Cimmerian, Germanic or Celtic. In later times, some scholars connected them with the Welsh people, and descendants of Gomer. Among the first authors to identify Gomer, the Cimmerians, and Cimbri, with the Welsh name for themselves, Cymri, was the English antiquarian William Camden in his Britannia (first published in 1586).[7] In his 1716 book Drych y Prif Oesoedd, Welsh antiquary Theophilus Evans also posited that the Welsh were descended from the Cimmerians and from Gomer;[8] this was followed by a number of later writers of the 18th and 19th centuries.[8][9]

gomers world

This etymology is considered false by modern Celtic linguists, who follow the etymology proposed by Johann Kaspar Zeuss in 1853, which derives Cymry from the Brythonic word *Combrogos (“fellow countryman”).[9][10][11] The name Gomer (as in the pen-name of 19th century editor and author Joseph Harris, for instance) and its (modern) Welsh derivatives, such as Gomeraeg (as an alternative name for the Welsh language)[9] became fashionable for a time in Wales, but the Gomerian theory itself has long since been discredited as an antiquarian hypothesis with no historical or linguistic validity.[12] According to tractate Yoma, in the Talmud, Gomer is identified as the ancestor of the Gomermians, modern Germans.

annio da viterbo

In 1498 Annio da Viterbo published fragments known as Pseudo-Berossus, now considered a forgery, claiming that Babylonian records had shown that Comerus Gallus, i.e. Gomer son of Japheth, had first settled in Comera (now Italy) in the 10th year of Nimrod following the dispersion of peoples. In addition, Tuiscon, whom Pseudo-Berossus calls the fourth son of Noah, and says ruled first in Germany/Scythia, was identified by later historians (e.g. Johannes Aventinus) as none other than Ashkenaz, Gomer’s son.
Gomer’s descendants

Three sons of Gomer are mentioned in Genesis 10, namely

Riphath (spelled Diphath in I Chronicles)

Children of Ashkenaz was originally identified with the Scythians (Assyrian Ishkuza), then after the 11th century, with Germany.[13][14] It has been conjectured that the term in the original Hebrew was Ashkuz, but that it became Ashkenaz when the Hebrew letter waw was accidentally miscopied as the similar-looking letter nun at some early stage of the transmission.[citation needed] Irish Genealogy traces itself to Ibath, son of Gomer (thought to be a form of Riphath).[citation needed]

Ancient Armenian and Georgian chronicles lists Togarmah as the ancestor of both people who originally inhabited the land between two Black and Caspian Seas and between two inaccessible mountains, Mount Elbrus and Mount Ararat respectively.[15][16]

According to Khazar records, Togarmah is regarded as the ancestor of the Turkic-speaking peoples.[17]

olaudah equiano.jpg

Lost Hebrew? Olaudah Equiano
Updated on July 14, 2014
Olaudah Equiano- From the tribe of Judah or descendant of Keturah?
Olaudah Equiano- From the tribe of Judah or descendant of Keturah?
Lost Hebrew? – Olaudah Equiano (1745-1797)

Equiano’s autobiography: The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Or Gustavus Vassa, The African, by Olaudah Equiano (1789), is both chilling and informative. But for the researcher looking for clues to the true identity of the slaves, this primary source helps us to persist in the unfolding of a mystery – the Hebrewisms of the men women and children known only as African slaves or Negroes, found in their names, customs, practices, and even their land, before the initiation, and proliferation of the Atlantic Slave Trade.
Home of Olaudah Equiano – Biafra West Africa 1747
The Desert of Seth in West Africa 1747
The Desert of Seth in West Africa 1747
Video: Kingdom of Juda
The Kingdom of Juda renamed the Slave Coast
The Kingdom of Juda renamed the Slave Coast
The Kingdom of Juda

Olaudah Equiano (c.1745 – 1797), was captured as a child from his hometown of Essaka in Biafra (just above the Desert of Seth), an Igbo (Eboe) village in the kingdom of Benin in what is now southern Nigeria. Equiano recalls his kidnapping at age ten and transportation to the Caribbean, where after a short stay he was sent to the English colony of Virginia. There he was purchased by a Captain Michael Henry Pascal, a British naval officer; who renamed him Gustavus Vassa, and brought to England in 1754. [You can read this hub: Maps of Africa-The Desert of Seth son of Adam for more in-depth information.]

Of particular interest is the original name of the author Olaudah. When one looks at the suffix of his first name [udah] etymologically, the connection to [J-udah] or [J-uda] is without question. His name indicates the tribe from which he originated, thus one begins to suspect that he is from the tribe of Juda that were present in West Africa. In 1747 British and French mapmakers charted a “Kingdom of Juda” on the coast of Guinea that was later renamed the “Slave Coast”. Equiano recalls:

“That part of Africa, known by the name of Guinea, to which the trade for slaves is carried on, extends along the coast above 3400 miles, from the Senegal to Angola, and includes a variety of kingdoms. Of these the most considerable is the kingdom of Benen, (Benin) both as to extent and wealth, the richness and cultivation of the soil, the power of its king, and the number and warlike disposition of the inhabitants.”

Equiano is from the Igbo (Eboe) tribe, one that exists today and recognised by many observers and commentators as being a lost tribe of Israel. Of the similarities in customs to the laws of Moses he writes: “I cannot forbear suggesting what has long struck me very forcibly, namely, the strong analogy which even by this sketch, imperfect as it is, appears to prevail in the manners and customs of my countrymen and those of the Jews, before they reached the Land of Promise, and particularly the patriarchs while they were yet in that pastoral state which is described in Genesis..” Some of these similarities are found in their religious practices. Equiano cites their belief in “one Creator of all things” the practice of circumcision, offerings and feasts according to the laws of Moses; and recalls: “Some of our offerings are eaten with bitter herbs.”
Afra Southern Africa 1680
Afra – The Land of Shem
The Patriarch Abraham

In matters of authority and leadership among his tribe, a connection to the ways and customs of the patriarchs Abraham Isaac and Jacob is alluded to when he says: “Like the Israelites in their primitive state, our government was conducted by our chiefs or judges, our wise men and elders; and the head of a family with us enjoyed a similar authority over his household with that which is ascribed to Abraham and the other patriarchs.”

During Equiano’s time theologians Dr Gill author of a bible commentary and Dr. John Clarke formed the opinion that the presence of Hebrewisms among Equiano’s tribe, and indeed the larger portion of the slaves taken from West Africa originated from a familial connection to Abraham but not through Jacob:

“Indeed this is the opinion of Dr. Gill, who, in his commentary on Genesis, very ably deduces the pedigree of the Africans from Afer and Afra, (Book of Jubilees p73) See the descendants of Abraham by Keturah his wife and concubine (for both these titles are applied to her). It is also conformable to the sentiments of Dr. John Clarke, formerly Dean of Sarum, in his Truth of the Christian Religion’: both these authors concur in ascribing to us this original.”

One can only assume these theologians may not have been acquainted with the many maps charted by Christian colonizing nations dating back to the 15th century revealing multiple biblical locations throughout the length and breadth of Africa. It is also interesting that the author himself is unable to evoke any memories as to the reason why their practices were identical to those prescribed in the Mosaic Law and practiced by the Jews.
Opinion Poll
In your opinion- what was Equiano’s lineage?

5% African
3% Canaanite/Hamite
92% Hebrew

79 people have voted in this poll.
Oluadah Equiano in “Amazing Grace” (2006)

When Captain Pascal discovered that Equiano desired his freedom, he sold him to a Captain James Doran, who sold him on to a Quaker merchant Robert King who then loaned him to a Captain Thomas Farmer. Eventually, Equiano engaged in the enterprise of trading goods between ports and in 1766 was able to save enough money to purchase his freedom.

Equiano has been depicted in the movie “Amazing Grace”, and though many historical facts have been compromised, the movie is emotive and informative giving us a visual insight into his contribution to the fight for the abolition of slavery. His narrative gives an in-depth account of his life before his capture, during enslavement and as a freedman, it gives the children of those who survived the slave trade insight into their ancestors way of life before the travesty of slavery. Thus it is a testament preserved through the ages and is to be added to that remnant of sources preserved for Equiano’s nation from the 18th-20thcenturies and maybe beyond.

For maps of Biblical locations in Africa visit the Member Gallery at:

comparison of skulls

© 2014 Amanda Trayce

George M. Fredrickson, Stanford Professor, “The Black Image in the White Mind” Pg. 74-75 wrote:In the 1840’s, Morton collaborated with George R. Gliddon, an Egyptologist, who provided him with mummy heads and information about the racial significance of Egyptian tomb inscriptions. In Crania Aegyptiaca, published in 1844, Morton pointed out that both cranial and



Now that you know the truth it is time to tell it and share this knowledge. There are many who are hiding this information and claim to love God (Yah) but hate his people and they will be judged. for being liars.

from babylon to timbuktu documentation

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